Works Cited

Campaign Finance: Works Cited

ALEC: Magician with a Revealed Secret

“ALEC – The American Legislative Exchange Council – Explained in 5 Minutes.”

YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 07 Jan. 2016.

This is a short but detailed explanation of ALEC, which explains that it is a corporation that gets lobbyists and legislators together to make ‘model’ bills that turn into laws.

“About ALEC.” – American Legislative Exchange Council. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Jan. 2016.

This gives information on ALEC’s view of themselves, as well as their goals. It helped give an example of the other side in the introduction.

“ALEC Exposed.” ALEC Exposed. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Jan. 2016.

This explains the corruption within ALEC, extending from how they pass their model bills, to all of the corporations and legislators involved. It gave us insight into connections between corporate interests turning into bills and the money that they donate to ALEC, which gets into the hands of the legislators involved. It helped us write the introduction and explain the side in disagreement with ALEC’s actions.  

“ALEC: The Voice of Corporate Special Interests In State Legislatures.” People for the American Way. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Jan. 2016.

This explains how ALEC makes its way into state legislatures and get their special interest bills passed.

Schouten, Fredreka. “Who Are the Koch Brothers?” USA Today. Gannett, 23 Apr. 2015. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

This is talking about the Koch brothers’ beliefs and their special interests.

“Prison Economics Help Drive Ariz. Immigration Law.” NPR. NPR, n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

This was used for the case study and explains the correlation between a private prison’s corporate interest and a law around immigrants that was passed that benefitted them. They were found to be involved in ALEC, as well as the state legislator who suggested the bill. The law was also very similar to the model bill created in ALEC.

“A CMD Special Report on ALEC’s Funding and Spending.” PR Watch. N.p., 13 July 2011. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

This shows where ALEc gets their money from and where it goes. It explains how ALEC gets most of the foundation from the corporations involved with them.

“John Stauber.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

John Stauber is a political writer whose motives are to expose private interests, public relations, and the government.

“What We Do.” The Center for Media and Democracy’s PR Watch. N.p., 29 Oct. 2004. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

The Center for Media and Democracy has done an investigation showing the corruption in ALEC.

“Our Values.” Shell. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

This talks about Shell’s (oil and gas company) background.

“Shell Just Broke Up With ALEC Over Climate-Change Denials.”Think Progress RSS. N.p., 07 Aug. 2015. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

This explains why Shell backed out of ALEC.

“Voter ID | Brennan Center for Justice.” Voter ID | Brennan Center for Justice. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

The beliefs of the center are that people’s vote matter, no matter what race they are or where they are from.

“Prison Economics Help Drive Ariz. Immigration Law.” NPR. NPR, n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

How the “Model” bill was created by the American Legislative Exchange Council.

“Spain’s Illegal Immigrants.” ALEC Exposed (1991): 117-39. Web.

This explains the “No Sanctuary for Illegals Immigrants Act.”

“ALEC Public Safety and Elections Task Force.” – SourceWatch. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

This exposes ALEC and their agenda.

“Corrections Corporation of America.” – SourceWatch. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

This explains the Corrections Corporation of America and what part of the countries in the USA they control. They were used in our case study.

A Government of the People, by the Corporations, for the Profit

“Last Week Tonight with John Oliver: Dr. Oz and Nutritional Supplements.” YouTube. HBO. Web. 5 Jan. 2016.

This video helped me understand the FDA funding congresspeople and the effects. It gave details on just how large of an impact finance from corporations can have on legislative decisions.

“Herbal Supplements Filled with Fake Ingredients, New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman Finds.” CBSNews. CBS Interactive, 3 Feb. 2015. Web. 07 Jan. 2016.

This is an explanation and details of herbal supplement scam related to supplement industry, that I used for more insight into my case study.

Toobin, Jeffrey. “Money Unlimited.” The New Yorker. N.p., 21 May 2012. Web. 06 Jan. 2016.

This article extensively explains Citizens United and the different opinions on it, as well as how it all came together. It helped me understand the differences in campaign finance before and after the court decision.

Totenberg, Nina. “When Did Companies Become People? Excavating The Legal Evolution.” NPR. NPR, 28 July 2014. Web. 07 Jan. 2016.

This is an explanation of what it was like before Citizens United, how it happened, and different viewpoints on it.

“The Power of Money: The Ethics of Campaign Finance Reform.” Santa Clara University. Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, n.d. Web. 7 Jan. 2016.

This discusses campaign money details around congressmen and why it messes up the power balance. It helped me write a portion of the introduction, and more clearly understand the issue at hand.

Powell, Lynda. “The Influence of Campaign Contributions on Legislative Policy.” The Forum: A Journal of Applied Research in Contemporary Politics (2004): n. pag. Oct. 2013. Web. 9 Jan. 2016.

This manuscript shows evidence of influence of campaign finance on legislative policy, which was a very crucial section of my introduction.

“Current Stories.” Campaign Finance Information Center. Investigative Reporters and Editors, n.d. Web. 12 Jan. 2016.

This source has several current stories around campaign finance- one of which I used in the introduction which was the series by Salon and the Center for Investigative Reporting on the issue of federal judges funding the presidential campaign.

“Contribution Limits Overview.” National Conference of State Legislatures. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Jan. 2016.

This explains PACs and donation money limits.

“Campaign Finance and the Supreme Court.” National Conference of State Legislatures. N.p., 7 July 2015. Web. 12 Jan. 2016.

This helped me gain knowledge of Supreme Court cases around campaign finance, including ones with conflicts of interest.

“Money In Politics Project.” Committee for Economic Development. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Jan. 2016.

This is a group pushing campaign finance reform.

“Supreme Court Procedures.” United States Courts. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2016.

This gives background on the Supreme Court.

“Ilya Shapiro.” Cato Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2016.

This gave me information on Ilya Shapiro.

“About CFI.” The Campaign Finance Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2016.

This informed me of the Campaign Finance Institute.

“Outside Spending: Frequently Asked Questions About 501(c)(4) Groups.”Opensecrets RSS. Center for Responsive Politics, n.d. Web. 15 Jan. 2016.

This explains 510(c)4s.

“Super PACs Explained.” The Guardian. Guardian US Interactive Team, 21 Feb. 2012. Web. 15 Jan. 2016.

This explains super PACs.

Pinterest. Editorial Cartoonists, n.d. Web. 16 Jan. 2016.

This has the visual of the political cartoon I used.

“What Is Citizens United – Citizens United Decision Attacks Democracy.” As The Mind Wanders. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Jan. 2016.

This is the source for the Citizens United video and the infographic.

The 2016 Presidential Race: Why is it so Different?

Bowie, Blair. “How Super PACs Are Auctioning Our Democracy to the Highest Bidder, and How We Can Fight Back.” The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 02 Aug. 2012. Web. 14 Jan. 2016.

This source gives more background on how Super PACs are affecting our elections and government. I used this article for more background knowledge.

Choma, Russ. “These Two Unlikely Candidates Are Dominating the Race for Small Donors.” Mother Jones. Mother Jones, 07 Aug. 2015. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

This source details the two grass roots campaigners, candidates Ben Carson and Bernie Sanders. This helped me gain knowledge on why small-donation candidates are doing well, and why Carson fell off, while Sanders continues to gain in the polls.

Confessore, Nicholas, Sarah Cohen, and Karen Yourish. “The Families Funding the 2016 Presidential Election.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 10 Oct. 2015. Web. 10 Jan. 2016.

This article outlines the top donors to the 2016 presidential race. Cohen goes into how these families are connected, what business they’re in, and how similar they are. This helped me get a sense of who is funding Super PACs. It also gave me insight on who to look into, and what beliefs these top donors hold. This article is a good start into the realm of the people behind the donations.

Fein, Ron. “The Beginning of the End of the Super Pac?” USNews.com. USNews, 04 Nov. 2015. Web. 14 Jan. 2016.

This article outlines how people are reacting to Super PACs after the 2012 presidential race. It outlines how the 2016 Presidential race might be changed due to factors including citizens values. I used this article to explore how Super PACs are losing value, and why might people be more interested in a self-funded or grass roots candidate.

Mandle, Jay. “What Is Wrong with Presidential Campaign Financing.” The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 11 May 2007. Web. 10 Jan. 2016.

This article outlines the ramp up of private donations and Super PACs within the last presidential elections. It goes over previous elections, and analyzes what is wrong with the influx of money. I used this citation to gain background on how super pacs affect campaigns, and how they have grown in normality and size over time. It helped me get a sense of why private money is in high demand.

“Million-Dollar Donors in the 2016 Presidential Race.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 23 Sept. 2015. Web. 05 Jan. 2016.

This article outlines the major donors in the 2016 Presidential race, who they donated to, and how much. This helped me in finding candidates to look for and who is spending in the race. I also was able to fact check names and amounts of money with this article.

Montgomery, Peter. “The Wilks Brothers: Fracking Sugar Daddies For The Far Right.” Right Wing Watch. People for the American Way, 12 June 2014. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

This source makes a clear statement about the Wilks Brothers and what it means for them to be funding Ted Cruz. This article was helpful in giving insight on the brothers’ ideologies and why they want Cruz to represent them. This article also led me to look into other top donors.

Overby, Peter. “5 Years After ‘Citizens United,’ SuperPACs Continue To Grow.” NPR. NPR, 13 Jan. 2015. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

This source shows how big Super PACs have become, and who uses them to back up their campaigns.

“Priorities USA Action.” Opensecrets RSS. Center for Responsive Politics, 17 Aug. 2015. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

Because I was unable to find out who donates to Priorities USA on their website, I used this article which gives an updated list of top donors. This was useful in finding who to look into and who influences the election through super PACs.

“About – Priorities USA Action.” Priorities USA Action. Priorities USA Action, n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

This is Super PAC “Priorities USA” about page. They outline their beliefs, how they started, and who they support. I used it to gain background on the PACs creation and why it is supporting Hillary Clinton.

Pulver, Matthew. “Why Bernie Sanders & Donald Trump Represent a Perfect Storm for American Politics.” Saloncom RSS. Salon, 24 July 2015. Web. 14 Jan. 2016.

This source details the comparison between Sanders and Trump. It analyzes how both of the men do not abide by party rules, and how both men are independent. This source was extremely helpful in forming the answer to the question of how campaign finance has changed and how influence affects candidates, or lack of.

“RealClearPolitics – Election 2016 – 2016 Democratic Presidential Nomination.” RealClearPolitics – Election 2016 – 2016 Democratic Presidential Nomination. Real Clear Politics, n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2016.

This website has the polling day-by-day of each candidate, the website also has the republican candidate national polls. I used this for background on where each candidate stands in regards to their money, to answer the question: are Super PACs helpful?

“Right to Rise USA.” Right to Rise USA. Right to Rise USA, n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

This is the about page from Bush’s Super PAC Right to Rise USA. It details the views the PAC holds and their plans. This article gave significant insight in to Bush’s and his Super PAC’s beliefs. I used it to understand why companies are donating to the PAC.

Rowen, Beth. “Campaign-Finance Reform: History and Timeline.” Infoplease. Infoplease, n.d. Web. 15 Jan. 2016.

This article is a clear timeline of campaign finance reform in the United States. It gives background and analyzes each reform and clearly shows how Citizens United has changed funding in recent years. I used this article to gain background on how campaign finance in regards to presidential elections has changed, and why campaign reform makes such an impact on how candidates raise money.

Schleifer, Theodore. “Billionaire Brothers Give Cruz Super PAC $15 Million – CNNPolitics.com.” CNN. Cable News Network, 27 July 2015. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

This article gives background on the WIlks Brothers and why they support Ted Cruz. I used this for fact checking and obtain background on the family. It helped me learn more about who is behind campaign funding and what they stand for.

Strong, Robert. “Trump, Perot and Easing Political Paralysis.” The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 14 Dec. 2015. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

This article compares Perot and Trump. This was useful for my case study. I learned about  how well self-funded men have done in presidential elections before, and what is missing in Perot that Trump has.

Tashman, Brian. “Pat Robertson Defends Donald Trump’s Muslim Immigration Ban.” Right Wing Watch. People for the American Way, 09 Dec. 2015. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

This source gives insight into who Pat Robertson is. It also gives a clear example of how Roberston and Trump share similar views. I used this source to compare them, and also see what  beliefs Robertson holds.

“Which Presidential Candidates Are Winning the Money Race.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 16 Oct. 2015. Web. 05 Jan. 2016.

2016 Presidential candidate donations totals thus far. It breaks down the donations by candidate. The article clearly shows the different types of donations each candidate is using, how much they have and how much they spend, and who has the most support.

“#1386 Farris Wilks.” Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 19 Jan. 2016. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

This source gives basic information on the Wilks brothers. I used this source to find background and a reason behind their funding for Republican candidate Ted Cruz.

“2016 Presidential Race.” Opensecrets RSS. Center for Responsive Politics, n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

This source provides a clear visual representation of presidential candidates and their donors. This source was useful to see exactly who has the most supporters with large private donations.

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